INTRODUCTION. There is now a high level of acceptance amongst biodeterioration biologists and technologists in the paints and biocides industries , that. Several paints of varying chemistry have been in use for domestic and industrial purposes. The painted Biodeterioration of domestic and public buildings. PDF | This paper presents a review of the biodeterioration of architectural paint films by bacteria, fungi and algae, concentrating on external films. references .
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IARC Some organic solvents, resin monomers and related compounds, pigments and occupational exposures in paint manufacture and painting.
With fungi, only colony numbers of Aureobasidium Pullularia pullulansconsidered by some the main biological agent of paint deterioration 2843increased steadily with the time of incubation so that, after 12 weeks, this species was essentially the only fungal species present on the panels. Microbiodeterioration of library materials. Finally, one must evaluate how aging, which may be simulated in the laboratory, may bring about variations in the chemical structures of many components of works of art from the support polymers to the different binders and glues and how these chemical variations may influence the colonization by different microbial taxa.
Many of the components of paintings are biodegradable, and so are the additives glues, emulsifiers, thickeners, etc. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc. Similarly, cyanobacteria and algae growing on paintings exposed to light, such as frescoes on the facades of buildings, may cause considerable damage. However, the fungi were considered secondary colonizers of the fresco.
Microbial Degradation of Paintings
However, wide quantitative variations are evident. For instance, from three areas with stains of the same color, present on the same portion of a fresco, different fungi were isolated. In one case at least, extensive fungal colonization was reported even with frescoes that, after cleaning and consolidation, were removed from walls and transferred to a fiberglass support Indeed, work under way in my laboratory has demonstrated the existence of differences in the microbial colonizations of mock paintings when different pigment binders oil or distemper were used or when the same type of painting was relined with different glues unpublished data.
In this way, the microbiologist will be able to suggest the nature and the mode of treatment that will stop microbial colonization before damage becomes visible and irreversible.
Similarly, one should try to evaluate in the laboratory how the microbial population varies when the environmental conditions change a painting on the exterior of a building will undergo colonization by microorganisms different from those colonizing a similar painting located inside the same building. Further, as already noticed, quite often the lists of microorganisms isolated from a damaged painting are limited to one group of microorganisms fungi, bacteria, or algae and rarely include all the microorganisms present.
Bravery AF Biodeterioration paunts paint – a stateof- the-art review. Tayler S and May E Detection of specific bacteria on stone using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay.
Of course, the two types of damage are strongly linked, and in the long run, structural damage profoundly affects the aesthetic quality of a painting. As already mentioned, another difficulty lies in the fact that most of the published reports are essentially catalogues of the microorganisms isolated from painted surfaces, especially from the areas biodetreioration which visual inspection has revealed aesthetic damage due to changes in the colors of paints and appearance of stains, variations in the structure of the painted layer, etc.
The microecology of mold growth. Microbiological studies on the conservation of mural paintings in tumuli.
Biodeterioration of paints
Contributions to the study of the biodeterioration of the works of art and of historic monuments. Ravikumar 1Shwetha S. Contributions to the study of the biodeterioration of the works of art and historical monuments. A study of the ecological succession in biodeterioration of a vinyl acrylic paint film. Thus, besides the organic nature of the support, easel paintings contain organic molecules niodeterioration many microorganisms may utilize for growth, such as sugars, gums, and other polysaccharides, proteins, linseed and other biodetrioration, waxes, etc.
These findings were confirmed in laboratory experiments in which samples of the microbial mats from the frescoes were grown under fluorescent or incandescent light at two different light intensities 5. Observations on paknts structure of micro-organisms of an epilithic photoprophic community competing for light.
Various types of organisms are involved in paint spoilage and they include bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa. Such differences in two frescoes painted at the biodeterioratiob time in the same building, presumably with similar or identical materials, and restored and cleaned at the same time appear rather striking.
These compounds may modify the colors biofeterioration well as the stability of the painted layer and of oc substrate. Although historical records and, more significantly, chemical analyses may indicate with sufficient accuracy the pigments that have been used in older art works, it is less easy to determine which components were used for sizing the ground, emulsifying the pigments, protecting the finished painted surfaces, etc.
Species of fungi isolated from frescoes. The work is similar to that of the wet-state bacterial paint testing project and has also recently published, internally, a Draft 5 Test Method. In addition, the same fungal species was isolated from spots of different colors as well as from fissured fragments of the frescoes that were apparently not stained.
Indagine sperimentale sul ruolo dei cianobatteri e delle microalghe nel deterioramento paonts moumenti ed affreschi; pp. Death and lysis of these bacteria provided the organic substrates necessary for the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi. Emoto Y, Miura S, editors. Baer N S, Snethlage R, editors.
Biodeterioration of paints
Giacobini C, Firpi M. Fungal paintw of cellulosic textiles: Firstly by discussion at the meetings, secondly by carrying out and reporting on individual laboratory investigations and, most importantly, by organising, performing and reporting on collaborative experimental work or round robin testing. However, the idea that fungi may be the primary microbiological agents responsible for degradation of art works is so entrenched that often antibacterial agents are added routinely to the media used for the isolation of the microbial contaminants presumed responsible for the viodeterioration of art works 22 Succession and interrelationships of microorganisms on painted surfaces.
Biodeteriortion a few cases, more comprehensive analyses aiming to determine all, or the majority of, the biota present on a painting have been reported 27 Assuming that no great differences exist in the materials used when the two frescoes were painted but this cannot be provedthe only possible explanation is that the locations of the two frescoes in the church are such that they affect differentially the fungal colonizations of the paunts murals.
Bacteria, especially of the genus Arthrobacterwere reported to be among the first colonizers of murals in a medieval church in Rostov, Russia 41and to be responsible for oxidation of the lead present in pigments, resulting in the production of brown-black spots of lead oxides.
It seems to me that the time is now ripe to acknowledge that studies of the microbial colonization of art works should go beyond the descriptive stage, that is, cataloguing which organisms are found on which substrate.